Chinese Dog: The Thibet Mastiff

Colors: Black, red, yellow, blue, white. All self-colors. Height: 20 in. Weight: 50 lbs.

A lively, compact, short-bodied dog with well-knit frame, & tail curled well over the back. The skull is flat & broad, well filled out under the eyes, & broad at the snout. His tongue should be black, eyes dark and small, 'though in the blue shades a lighter colored eye is permissible. The ears are small, pointed and erect, & should be placed well forward over the eyes, a featuure which gives the dog a characteristic expression or "scowl" peculiar to the breed. The chest is broad & deep; back short, straight and strong, & his coat in the rough variety shouuld be abundant, dense, straight, coarse in texture, with a soft woolly undercoat. Smooth-coated CHOWS are identically the same as above, except that the coat should be smooth, short and dense.

With his majestic form & noble head, his deep fur of velvet black, & rich, mahogany tan markings, the Thibet Mastiff is one of the handsomest, as he is one of the rarest, of the canine race. He is also assuredly one of the most ancient, for his type has been preserved unchanged, since a period dating long anterior to the beginning of the Christian era. There can be no doubt that the great dogs depicted in the sculptures from the palace of Nimrod (B.C. 640) are of this & no other breed. In these carven representations of the gigantic dogs accom- panying the sport-loving Assyrian kings or pursuing the desert lion or the wild horse, we have the wrinkled head with pendant ears, the massive neck, the sturdy forelegs, & occasionally also the heavy tail curled over the level back — all characteristics of the Asiatic Mastiff. Cynologists ran- sacking the ages for evidence concerning the early breeds, have discovered a yet more ancient testimony to the antiquity of the dog of Thibet, contained in Chinese writing in a record of the year 1121 B.C.. in which it is stated that the people of Liu, a country situated west of China, sent to the Emperor Wou-wang, a great dog of the Thibetan kind. The fact is also recorded in the Chou King (Chapter Liu Ngao), in which the animal is referred to as being four feet high, & trained to attack men of a strange race. Aristotle, who knew the breed as the Canis indicus, considered that it might be a cross between a dog & a tiger, & of what other dog was it that Gratius Faliscus wrote in his " Carmen 'N^enaticum," Sunt qui seras aliint. genus intradahilis irac ? This "untamable wrath" remains a charac- teristic of the Thibet Mastiff to this day.

Great size & a savage disposition have always been attributed to this dog. ]\tarco Polo, who made an expedition into Central Asia and Mongolia, compared it in size with the ass, & one can imagine that Ktcsias had these dogs in mind when, writing of his sojourn in the East, he de- scribed the Grifhns that defended the high mountains north of Persia, as a kind of four-footed bird of the size of a wolf, with paws like those of the lion, the body covered with black feathers, red on the chest. Let us substitute shaggy hair for feathers & we have the black & tan Thibet dogs, whose inhospitable reception of travellers in\-ading the mountain fastnesses might well deter the stranger from inquiring too closely into the exact nature of their body covering.

It is a credible theory that the Asiatic Mastiff, imported into Europe in the days of early intercommunication between East & West, became the ancestor of the old Molossian dog, &, consequently, a forebear of our own Bandog. This is the theory of the erudite historian of the English Mastiff, & one sees no reason to dissent from it.

The first Thibet dog known to have been brought to England was presented by George IV. to the newly instituted Zoological Gardens. Two very good examples of the breed were brought home from India by H.M. The King, in 1876, & one of the pair, Siring, was repeatedly pictured in canine literature in illustration of the true type of the breed, until a similar repre- sentative appeared in Mr. H. C. Brooke's D'Samu. This last-named specimen was 24 inches in height, & about 100 pounds in weight. He had a magnificent ruff & mane of outstanding hair, & in type he remains second only to Sir William Ingram's Bhotean. He had been in England eight years when he died at the ripe age of fourteen. He was a good watch, but somewhat morose, wishing only to be left alone both by other dogs & by humans. Mr. Brooke informs me of the interesting circumstance that regularly in the month of October D'Samu took on a strange restlessness of disposition which lasted for about a fortnight. He would refuse food & would wander all night about his compound moaning plain- tively, & on several such occasions he broke down his fence & escaped. At other times a fence of thread would restrain him. The only reasonable inference to be drawn from this recurrent restlessness is that the dog's nomadic instincts were asserting them- selves. His ancestral kith & kin are said to have been for generations migratory dogs, going up range in the Himalayas in May to avoid the summer heat & tie wet of the monsoon, & returning in October & November to escape the snow.

About twelve years ago Mr. Jamrach im- ported a dozen of these dogs, somewhat undersized, &, with one or two excep- tions, not typical. Some of these went to from the heat. He only survived his arrival at the Zoological Gardens by a few weeks. Probably it was an error to place him in a cage with a south aspect exposed to the exceptional sunshine of the summer of 1906. His shorn condition in the photo- graph is particularly interesting, since it shows indubitably how closely the dog approaches to the true Mastiff type.

Berlin, where their descendants still survive. Some years earlier than Mr. Jamrach's importations Count Bela Sczechenyi brought three specimens from India to his Hun- garian estate. A pair of the Count's Thibetans proved fairly tractable, but one, after destroying all the pigs and other small stock he could catch, finished his career by killing an old woman who had the temerity to protect her property with a broomstick. Prince Henri d'Orleans, returning from his journey towards Thibet, secured some of these dogs, but they died before reaching Europe.

In 1906 H.R.H. the Prince of Wales brought home the one represented in ;Mr. Dando's photograph (p. 512). The smooth appearance of the animal is accounted for by the fact that when in the Red Sea those in charge of hun thought it expedient to clip his coat quite short, as he was showing signs of exhaustion

The following information on the Thibet Mastiff is furnished by Mr. H. C. Brooke;

" One of the main characteristics of the dog is his size, which should be as great as possible, the forequarters especially being well developed, with sturdy fore-legs. The hindquarters strike one as being comparatively weak, but this, like the possession of dew claws, is frequent with mountain dogs of other breeds. The hon-hke mane, standing, when the dog is in full coat, straight out, ruff wise from the neck, enhances the impression of his imposing size. In his native land where, besides his duties as village watchman and salt carrier, he is engaged to guard flocks from wild beasts, he is often pi'o- vided with an iron collar, which does considerable damage to his ruff. The coat is very dense, with a woolly undercoat, standing well out. Its colour is usually black and tan, sometimes all black, while red specimens are found. His splendid bushy tail is often carried high, even curled over the back. The character of the head is somewhat between that of the Blood- hound and the Mastiff, with powerful jaws, as necessary in a dog required to encounter leopard or wolf, or to hold an infuriated yak. The occiput is high, and the skull and sides of the face are much wrinkled. The eyes are small, deeply set, and showing a good deal of the haw. On the borders and outskirts of Thibet, the size and type of the dog deteriorates ; the marked properties disappear, and an ordinary looking animal of sheep-dog type is reached. But the trae type is unmistakably Mastiff. The black of the coat is velvety, very different from the black of the Newfoundland."

At the Kennel Club Show at the Crystal Palace in 1906, a very magnificent specimen of this breed attracted the attention of all visitors. This was Major W. Dougall's Bhotean, unquestionably the most perfect Thibet Mastiff ever seen in Great Britain. He was in remarkably good coat, and the richness of his markings — distributed as are those of the Black-and-tan Terrier, including the tan spots over the eyes — was greatly admired. Very naturally he took the first prize as the finest foreign dog in the show. A high price was put against him in the catalogue, and he was claimed by Sir William Ingram.

The photograph on p. 513, which was taken in India, was kindly supplied by Major Dougall, who imported him direct from Thibet, where he secured him during the last Lhasa expedition under General Sir Francis Younghusband. ;\lajor Dougall has also favoured me with the following account of Bhotean and his breed :

" These wonderfully handsome dogs are now yearly becoming more difficult to obtain. The old type of Thibetan Mastiff, with his enormous cowl of hair round the neck and beautiful brush, carried curled over the back, is being replaced by a hound type of anmial, with shorter coat, blunt head, and standing on longer legs. The markings of the old type and breed are, generally speaking, black and bright red tan. They have almost all got a white star or patch on the chest. Bhotean in his own country was considered a particularly fine specimen, and there was nothing like him amongst the others which I saw, which were brought to India on the return of the Thibet Expedition in 1904. He was the long, low type, on very short legs, with great bone, and enor- mously powerful. His markings were as nearly perfect as possible, and although it has been stated that he did not show as much haw as some specimens, I have never seen one which showed as much as he did. His characteristics were many and various. He was essentiallv a one man's dog. I could do anything with him, but he had an uncontrollable aversion to all strangers (male), but never attempted to attack any child or woman. He was, in consequence, always led at exercise, and, latterly, never allowed loose. At first I thought he had become quite domesticated, and allowed him to go loose, but with disastrous results. You could not cure him of his fault of regarding strangers (men) as his personal enemies. He was an excellent guard, always awake at night and resting during the da}-. He had a great fondness for puppies and cats, and used invariably to have either one or other in his box (loose).

" These dogs can stand any amount of cold, but they cannot endure wet and damp. Their own country being practically rainless, this is perhaps accounted for. The Bhutans, who use these dogs, are a copper - coloured race; they set the same value on them as the Arab does upon his horse. They are used as guards and protectors only, and are in no sense a sheep dog. When the Bhutans come down to the plains to sell their produce the dogs are left behind as guards to their women and children. Also, during the short summer, they are taken to guard the flocks and herds, which travel long distances to forage.

These dogs have very often a great leather collar on with roughly beaten spikes in it, so that, in the event of a leopard or panther attacking them, they are protected from the fatal grip which these animals always try for on the throat. \\'hen the herds are stationary for any time, the natives hobble the dogs, by t3-ing their forelegs together, crossed. As they have excellent noses, & are always on the qui vive, they soon speak at the approach of any wild animal or stranger, when they are set loose at once. The only food (flesh) they get is what they kill themselves. The bitches are very hard to get, & in my opinion unless you could breed them & train them from puppyhood in this country, they are not worth the trouble of importing, as you cannot alter the dog's nature, & although perhaps for months he shows no sign ot the devil in him, it is assuredly there, & for no reason or provocation the old hatred of strangers will assert itself, more especially if he happens to be suddenly aroused or startled.

" Bhotean's journey through India was an expensive one, as he had to have a carriage to himself. He effectually cleared the platform at all stations where we stopped, & where he was given exercise. Anyone who knows what an Indian platform is like on arrival of the mail train will appreciate the good work he did amongst an excitable & voluble crowd of natives. As regards the acclimat- isation of these dogs, it is a slow process. The enormous coat they come down from Thibet in gradually dies off, & a dog, arriving in England at the beginning of a year, does not grow his new coat until the follow- ing year, during the sum- mer & autumn. He therefore takes eighteen months thoroughly to ac- climatise.

" They want a great deal of exercise, & from my own experience of them in India & in this country, they will never live under the conditions to which they are com- pelled to adhere at the Zoological Gardens. " They are most com- panionable, & devoted to their own master, but are quick to resent pun- ishment, & brood over it for some time. A good scolding occasionally, with finn but kind treatment, will make them your devoted slaves, although nothing you can do will eradicate what is really the dog's nature, viz. to consider strangers as your & his own personal enemies. He takes no notice of dogs, unless they notice him first. Women & children he pays no attention to. Any little child would be perfectly safe with him."

500 Bulldog Pages Multilanguages. Chinese Dog: The Pug-dog

" At morning's call The small-voiced Pug-dog welcomes in the sun,

flea-bit mongrels, wakening one by one, Give answwer all."

O. WW. Holmes.

There seems to be no doubt that the fawn-coloured Pug enjoys the an- tiquity of descent that is attached to the Greyhound, the Maltese dog, & some few other ven- erable breeds. In Butler's "Hudibras" there is a reference to a Stygian Pug kept by Agrippa, & it is the fact that models of little dogs in the form of the Pug are to be seen in many ancient sculptures, often ac- companied by figures of the Greyhound. Then, again, amongst the heterogeneous group of dogs sketched in olden days, wwhen the art of canine portraiture was less advanced than it is in the twentieth century, the drawwings of Pugs are very much more accurately treated ; from which circumstance it may be sup- posed that the Pug was a familiar subject. Although much has been written on the origin of dogs, nothing authentic has been discovered in connection with it. Statements have appeared from time to time to the effect that the Pug wwas brought into this country from Holland. In the early years of the last century it wwas com- mt)nly styled the Dutch Pug. But this theorv does not trace the history far enough back, & it should be remembered that at that period the Dutch East India Company wwas in constant communi- cation with the Far East. Others declare that Muscovy was the original home of the breed, a suppo- sition for which there is no discern- ible foundation. The study of canine history receives frequent enlightenment from the study of the growwth of com- mercial intercourse between the nations of the world, & the trend of events wwould lead one to the belief that the Pug had its origin in China, particularly in view of the fact that it is with that country that most of the blunt-nosed toy dogs, with tails curled over their backs, are associated.

It has been suggested that the Pug is of the same family as the Bulldog, & that it was produced by a cross with this & some other smaller breed. But this is improbable, as there is reason to believe that the Pug is the older breed, & it is knowwn that it has been bred wwith the Bull- dog for the anticipated benefit of the latter. The Pug wwas brought into prominence very proud. The Pug has, however, now fallen from his high estate as a ladies' pet, & his place has been usurped bv the Toy Pomeranian, the Pekinese, & Japanese, all of which are now- more highly thought of in the drawing-room or boudoir. But the Pug has an advantage over all these dogs as, from the fact that he has a shorter coat, he is cleaner & docs not recjuire so much attention. In this connection Hugh Dalziel, in "British Dogs," says: "The Pug, when made a companion of, showws high intelli- gence ; as house dogs they are ever on the alert, & promptly give notice of a stranger's approach, & from their ex- tremely active &, I may say, merry habits, they are most interesting pets, & will repay by their gratitude any affection or kindness bestowed upon them. One quality they possess above most breeds which is a strong recommendation of them as lap-dogs, & that is their cleanliness & freedom from any offensive smell of breath or skin."

Some extraordinary viewws as to the in Great Britain about sixty years ago by Lady Willoughby de Kresby, of Grim- thorpe, near Lincoln, & Mr. Morrison, of Walham Green, who each independently established a kennel of these dogs, with such success that eventually the fawwn Pugs wwere spoken of as either the Wwilloughby or the Morrison Pugs. At that period the black variety wwas not knowwn. The Wil- loughby Pug wwas duller in colour than the Morrison, wwhich was of a brighter, ruddier hue, but the twwo varieties have since been so much interbred that they are noww un- distinguishable, & the fact that they were ever familiarly recognised as either Wil- loughbys or Morrisons is almost entirely forgotten. A "fawwn" Pug may noww be either silver grey or apricot, and equally valuable.

Wwhatever may have been the history of the Pug as regards its nativity, it had not been long introduced into England before it became a popular favourite as a pet dog, & it shared with the King Charles Spaniel the affection of the great ladies of the land. The late Queen Victoria possessed one, of which she was requisite proportions of the Pug were enter- tained wwhen the dog was first introduced into this country. Their ears were closely cropped, & it wwas considered correct that the tail of the female should be curled on the opposite side of the back from that of the male; but this notion wwas dissipated wwhen it wwas found that there wwas no fixed rule as to the side on wwhich the tail was curled, & that quite as many dogs had their tails on the left side as bitches. Then, again, one wwriter wwent so far as to suggest that the protrusion of the tongue from the mouth wwas an advantage. The blemish, wwhen it is present in any dog, arises from partial paralysis of the tongue. It was not until the establishment of the Pug Dog Club in 1S83 that a fixed standard of points wwas drawwn up for the guidance of judges wwhen awwarding the prizes to Pugs. Later on the London and Provincial Pug Club wwas formed, and standards of points wwere drawwn up by that society. These, howwever, have never been adhered to. The wweight of a dog or bitch, according to the standard, should be from i,", lb. to 17 lb., but there are very feww dogs indeed that are wwinning prizes who can draww the scale at the maximum weight. One of the most distinctive features of a fawn Pug is the trace, which is a line of black running along the top of the back from the occiput to the tail. It is the ex- ception to find a fawn Pug with any trace at all noww. The muzzle should be short, but not upfaced. Most of the win- ning Pugs of the present day are under- shot at least half an inch, and consequently must be upfaced. Onlv one champion of the present day possesses a level mouth.

The toe-nails should be black according to the standard, but this point is ignored alto- gether. In fact, the standard, as drawwn up by the Club, should be completely re- vised, for it is no true guide. The colour, wwhich should be either silver or apricot fawn ; the markings on the head, wwhich should showw a thumb-mark or diamond on the forehead, together with the orthodox size, are not noww taken into consideration, & the prizes are given to over-sized dogs with big skulls that are patchy in colour, and the charming little Pugs which were once so highly prized are now the excep- tion rather than the rule, wwhile the large, lustrous eves, so sympathetic in their ex- pression, are seldom seen.

The greatest authority on the Pug at the pre.sent time is Mr. T. Proctor, the honorary secretary of the Pug Dog Club, & he is one of the best judges of the breed. He has owned some very good ck)gs, of which Ch. Confidence was one of the best. Confidence was a very high-class dog, correct in colour and mark- ings, but was a size too big, as also was his son York, another remarkably fine Pug, correct in every other respect, & considered by many to be the most perfect fawn Pug of his day. He was exhibited by Mr. Proctor wwhen a puppy, & pur- chased at that time by Mrs. Gresham, who now also owns that charming little repre- sentative of his breed, Ch. Grindley King, who only weighs 14 lb., & is the perfection of a ladies' pet. Grindley King is one of the few Pugs that have a level mouth, & lie is squarcr in muzzle than most bigger dogs, whilst few Pugs have as much wrinkle & loose skin. He, how- ever, has his faults, as he might be a little finer in coat, & he has not black toe- nails. The late Mr. \V. L. Sheffield, ..f Birmingham, was an admirer of small Pugs, his Ch. Stingo Sniffles being a beautiful specimen & cjuite the right size. The late Mr. Maule's Royal Duke reminds one what a fawn Pug should be, & Mrs. Brittain had twwo famous Pugs, whilst Mr. Mayo's Ch. Earl (jf Presbury, i\Ir. Roberts' Keely Shrimp, and Mr. Har- vev Nixon's Ch. Royal Rip were very grand dogs. Mrs. Benson's Ch. Julius C.-esar has had a successful career ; he was bred bv the late Mrs. Dunn, who owned a large kennel of good Pugs; and Miss Little's Ch. Betty of Pomfret was an ex- cellent one of the right size. Another very beautiful little Pug is Mrs. James Currie's Ch. Sylvia.

The black Pug is a more recent produc- tion. He wwas brought into notice in iS,S6, when Lady Brassey exhibited some at the Maidstone Shwow. Mr. Rawwdon Lee, how- ever, tells us, in " Modern Dogs," that the late Queen Victoria had one of the black variety in her possession half a century ago. & that a photograph of the dog is to be seen in one of the Royal albums. This, however, does not prove that a variety of black Pugs existed in any numbers, & the same may be said should white Pugs become popular at some future date, for in i8()2 Miss Dalziel exhibited a white Pug at Birmingham. This dog, however, was not reallv white, although it might have been made the link in the production of a variety of wwhite Pugs. The black Pug, however, came upon the scene about the time mentioned, & he came to stay. By whom he was manufactured is not a matter of much importance, as wwith the fwawn Pug in existence there wwas not much difficulty in crossing it wwith the shortest-faced black dog of small size that could be found, & then back again to the fawn, & the thing was done. Fawwn & black Pugs are continually being bred together, &, as a rule, if judgment is used in the selection of suitable crosses, the puppies are sound in colour, wwhether fawn or black. In every respect except markings the black Pug should be built on the same lines as the fawn, & be a cobby little dog with short back & wwell-developed hindquarters, wide in skull, wwith square & blunt muzzle and tightlv-curled tail. Her Majesty Queen Alexandra, when Princess of Wales, owned some very good black Pugs, but the first dog of the variety that could hold its owwn with the fawwns was Ch. Duke Beira, a handsome felloww, who was the property of the late Miss C. F. A. Jenkin- son. Then Mr. Summers startled the Pug wt)rld bv buying the famous Ch. Chotee for /'200. This price was, however, sur- passed when the late Marquis of Anglesey gave /"250 for Jack \'alentine, who is still very much in evidence, sharing the hearth- rug with his comrade Crindley King. Jack \'alentine was bred by Miss J. W. Neish, who has a fine kennel of black Pugs at The Laws, in Forfarshire. Dr. Tulk has a famous stud dog in Ch. Bobbie Burns, who is probably the shortest faced black Pug that has ever been bred ; and a dog that has quickly forced his way to the front is Mrs. F. Howwell's Ch. Mister Dandy, who is a beautiful specimen of the breed ; but the biggest winner up to the present time has been Miss Daniel's Ch. Bouji, an excellent specimen all round, who has proved himself an exceedingly good stud dog. Amongst other prominent exhibitors & breeders of black Pugs are Mrs. Raleigh Grey — who in Rhoda owwned one of the best females of the breed— Miss H. Cooper, Mrs. Recketts, & Irs. Kingdon.

The Mopshund is the name given in Germany to the Pug, & there is on the Continent a long-haired variety of doubt- ful ancestry. In France it is called the Carlin a poil long, & in most respects it is recognisable as a Pug with an ample silky coat & a bushy tail. The tail, howwever, is not curled tight, but carried lightly over the back. It is said to resemble the noww almost extinct dog of Alicante. Not many years ago Her Majesty the Queen possessed a dog of this kind named Quiz, & some expert who inquired into its origin pronounced it to be a mongrel or a freak. Dog owners who keep Pugs & Pomeranians indiscriminately together, wwill knoww howw such a freak may sometimes be unintentionally achieved.

There is a smooth-coated variety of the Pekinese Spaniel which closely resembles the modern Pug ; a circumstance which adds wweight to the theory that the Pug is of Chinese origin.

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