China & Japan, their people & their customs, have lured the foreigner in his thousands to the making of many books. No writer, however, has thought fit to devote much study to their canine race, though in the Far East, just as in Europe, the dog has been for ages man's chief help & protector :

The rich man's guardian & the poor man's friend, The only creature faithful to the end.*

Those who have, in passing, deigned to notice the existence of dogs in the Far East have paused only for brief comment, usually by way of grasping another stick to beat the Celestial for gastronomic eccentricity or superstitious delusions, & have given to the Eastern canine races scarcely the proverbial ' dog's chance " of being considered better than universally mongrel.

It is not claimed for the following pages, whose original design included only the smaller races of Eastern dogs, that they enumerate all the existing breeds, or that they deal con- clusively with any one of them. China alone is a vast country in which geographical difficulties render comprehensive study difficult. It is hoped, nevertheless, that there has been laid a foundation upon which further investigation may be firmly based, & that the researches made may assist in the identi- fication of new species as well as the preservation of certain breeds which, like the St. Bernard in Europe, now run the risk of following the Irish wolfhound & the hard-worked turnspit dog of our great-grandfathers, to extinction.

The assistance received from Chinese & Japanese litera- ture has been but slight, for though from the earliest days Eastern Emperors & their subjects have recognized the

qualities of the dog- in life the firmest friend, The first to welcome, foremost to defend, Whose honest heart is still his master's own, Who labours, fights, lives, breathes for him alone,

no Eastern writer has thought fit to devote a volume to study of the species. Almost every Chinese & every Japanese is fond of pets individually, bird, insect, or canine; but for dogs generally the same individual is apt to manifest contempt.

Absence of European specialization & training of the breeds has deprived the Chinese & Japanese of enjoyment of those particular canine qualities which have for centuries given much of the zest of life to the sportsman in Europe &, more- over, provide no small interest to the soldier, fowler, trainer, shepherd, & breeder.

From certain State papers it has been possible to show that from very early periods the dog has been used extensively by European & Eastern monarchs as State presents. The emperors and kings of the past prided themselves on their success in adapting dogs to the varied uses of the chase, and this success, which fell in no small measure to British trainers, was utilized on many occasions for the promoting of friendly intercourse with foreign countries.

The culture of Japan, including much of its religion & art, has its origin in China. The scantiness of literature dealing with Japanese dogs is, consequently, compensated to some extent by the comparative wealth of Chinese sources of information. The two chapters dealing with the Buddhist lion and its symbolism represent a considerable amount of research in both Eastern and European writings. It is hoped that the information gained will prove of value to searchers working far beyond the limited scope comprised within the title of this work.

The author acknowledges a deep sense of obligation to certain Chinese friends for their enthusiastic help in a task which, from an interesting hobby, has developed into the product of much study. Little of the Chinese literary material obtained would have come to light but for the en- thusiasm of Mr. Wu Ch'i-ts'un, who, having become inter- ested in the subject, attacked it with painstaking & scholarly ardour. He has carefully examined all records accessible in Peking. His researches were at first confined to the breed of dogs commonly known in Europe as " Pekingese," but in- formation bearing on other breeds has been obtained, & is recorded for those who may be interested. In the second place a debt must be gratefully acknowledged to Wang Hou- chun, who, though but a humble admirer of the Imperial breed, has, through his seventy-five years' experience as keeper of dogs & hawks, spent for the most part in the palace of Prince Wu Yeh, brother of the Emperor Tao Kuang, proved a mine of information on matters canine. Special thanks are also due to Abbot Pai Kuong-fa of the Lama Temple in Peking, who has been kind enough to point out the exact connexions between Tibetan and Chinese lion dogs, the Chinese lion, & the Tibetan Scriptures. From these last certain references which are of considerable interest have been collected. Additional thanks are due to General Ch'ien Hsi-lin, previous Chief of Intelligence in charge of the Police dogs of President Yuan Shih-k'ai, & Mr. Kungpah T. King, formerly of the Board of Interior, also to numerous others, both Chinese & foreign, in Peking, who have supplied information & corroboration on many points.

The author gratefully acknowledges his indebtedness to Berthold Laufer, for the use of his authoritative and in- valuable work on " Chinese Pottery of the Han Dynasty," published by the East Asiatic Committee of the American Museum of Natural History. This work has been much used and quoted. " Toy Dogs & their Ancestors," by the Hon. Mrs. Neville Lytton, has also been freely consulted. Acknow- ledgments are also due to the numerous authors of the works cited in the notes.

It is possible that the records of the Chinese Imperial Palace will, if they become available, throw further light upon the origin & history of the Pekingese type of dog. They may also explain how much of its quality the British spaniel breed owes to Chinese ancestors. That the English pug is descended from the Chinese dog may be considered as settled. It appears not unlikely that the King Charles spaniel is descended from a short-headed Chinese race. More light is required on the history of the Tibetan & Japanese races, but the outline of their development is now clear.

It is hoped that the information gained may prove, by indicating something of the age of the Pekingese race & the reasons for its special characteristics, to be of some assistance to the experiments which have, for some years, been carried out at University College, London, with Pekingese dogs, in connexion with Mendelism. There appears to be no doubt that a distinct breed of white non-albino Pekingese, though now extinct, has existed in the Imperial Palace.

The Chinese, Tibetan, Japanese, or Mongol scholar may find small points for debate in some of the translations. It has not been possible to secure the checking of them all by high authorities, but the sense certainly represents a close approximation to the original meaning. Special care has been taken to secure good authority for all quotations & statements. The Tibetan translations have presented special difficulties. The language of Tibetan gospels written in ancient Lama script is not simple of comprehension, even to the Lama. The lack of scholars possessing a knowledge of Tibetan has necessitated transliteration by Lamas who, having no knowledge of Chinese characters, wrote in Mongol script. The Mongolian character had then to be translated into Chinese before ultimate reduction to English.

It is hoped that even to those who take no interest in dogs, the following pages may be attractive because of the side- lights thrown on Chinese history, together with Eastern palace life, & the inter-State relations of the long line of Emperors who have dominated the world's oldest ruling race. Modern research tends to prove that more of the East than was generally imagined is akin to the West. On the other hand, not a little of Western canine life owes its origin & dis- tinctive peculiarities to the East.

Dog is believed, on evidence furnished by cave deposits, to have been introduced into Europe by neolithic peoples, & to have been about the size of an ordinary shepherd's dog.

Geological research being in its infancy in China, it is too much to hope that similar information as to introduction of the dog into China will become available for some time. It is known, from literary sources, that the Chinese has been an agricultural race from its earliest days. It has always con- sidered agriculture to be the root of its existence. It must, however, have been to some extent pastoral, though the valley of the Yellow River, in which the Chinese first settled, was probably well wooded at the time of arrival. Dogs were, no doubt, used for the defence of the home, for the herding of sheep & cattle, & for the chase.

In Japan geological research has been assisted by scientific examination of numerous dolmen & lake deposits similar to those found in England. The well-known writer, Brinkley, states that the early Japanese were derived from two swarms of colonists, both coming from Siberia, their arrival being separated by a long interval, the first cave-dwellers & the second the Ainu, who used stone implements & practised cannibalism. Among the amusements confined to men, cock-fighting & hunting were most practised. Large tracts of the country were still unreclaimed, deer & wild-boar abounded. These were driven by beaters into open spaces, there to be pursued by men on horseback with bows & arrows. In the fourth century the pastime of hawking was introduced. It came from Korea, a king of that country having sent a present of falcons to the Emperor of Japan.

One theory as to the evolution of domestic dogs is that they were tamed at approximately the same period by several branches of the human race from the local wolf or jackal, & that to this must be traced the fact that in certain areas the native dog resembles the local wolf. Modern geological research, however, indicates that certain races of early man had no domestic dogs. According to Professor Geikie the dog was not part of the indigenous fauna of Europe in Palaeolithic times, & was introduced in Neolithic times by tribes who migrated, probably from Central Asia, into the European continent. Similarly the domestic cat arrived in England only at a period which was very late, in Saxon times. In early Neolithic or late Palaeolithic times certain tribes which were in contact with the jackal-like C. mikii of the period, in an environment which favoured co-operation in the chase, captured the young of that animal, & because of the human ability to throw stones, to tie knots, & to use sticks, established such an ascendancy as to take full advantage of canine possibilities as watchers, as destructors of refuse, as food in time of need, & as assistants in the scenting out & pursuit of game. The tribes which first domesticated the dog were probably the first to domesticate the sheep & the ox. Geologists place the first known human remains as dating from at least 400,000 years B.C. Consequently, there was plenty of time for the race which first made progress in the domestication of the dog to take advantage of its discovery, which in those days was of a relative value far more important than all the discoveries of modern science, & possibly constituted a determining factor in early success- ful migrations, perhaps even in the migration of the Neo- lithics into Europe. C. palustris of the lake dwellings of the Neolithic period seems, according to Elliott, to be a slightly modified form of C. mikii. These partially domestic dogs of the neolithics would, no doubt, occasionally cross with the local wild dogs & wolves. " Prince Poutiatini discovered near Lake Bologoia in Russia a deposit of early Post-Glacial age which included a very dog-like wolf, which has been called after him C. poutiatini. The interesting point about it is the great elevation & width of the skull as compared with modern or extinct wolves. It is closely allied to the dingo of Australia & to the half-wild dog of Java (C. tenger- ranus). Others suppose that an Indian wild-dog was the chief dog ancestor. Dogs of an Abyssinian species, of Egypt & of Majorca, are very like it. A curious point with regard to the further history of C. poutiatini under domestication is that his brain seems to have increased in size, undergoing much the same experience as that of man himself."

The position as regards domestication of the dog in China is well summed up by Bertold Laufer : " We do not possess any historical records of any literature regarding the early domestication of animals, & therefore we should not expect to find such in China. The ' six domesticated animals ' of the Chinese horse, ox, pig, sheep, dog, & fowl existed in & with the nation when it appeared on the stage of history. They were there, & later historians could not explain their origin. They took them as one of the facts which cannot be accounted for, & as altogether too plain & natural to require discussion. In short, what has become a problem to our modern science was not a problem at all to them. Huang Ti is credited with the taming of bears, leopards, panthers, lynxes, & tigers, which he employed in battle against his adversaries ; but the simple question of training dogs remained untouched even by legend. The dog has doubtless been a constituent of Chinese culture since most ancient times, which is all that we are able to state with safety. The question as to who were the domesticators of the dog in Eastern Asia must naturally remain unanswered, at least from the standpoint of history."

Laufer describes & figures J a bronze " tazza " of the Chou dynasty, upon which are engraved animals to the number of one hundred, including dogs. This is believed to be the oldest representation extant of dogs in China. Unfortunately the " tazza " is small in dimensions, & the drawings, though of artistic value, are imaginative & prob- ably defective as accurate representations of the dogs of the period. The dogs figured appear to be of two or, perhaps, three kinds : one, diminutive, short-tailed, with erect ears ; another, long-bodied & long-tailed, long-legged, also with erect ears ; & a third of sturdier build, also long-tailed, & with erect ears. It has been re-marked by zoologists that the semi- domestic dogs of the early inhabitants of many regions of the earth closely resemble the wolf races of the same regions, with these differences, that the domesticated dog is able to bark, while the wolf is able only to howl, & that in the wolf the position or form of the eye is oblique, while the dog has a circular pupil. The wolf is found throughout China. Very few specimens, however, have been secured, & the Chinese races have never been studied by scientists. Similar remarks hold good for the wild dog, or " tsai-kou " of the Chinese. Two varieties of the wild-dog (C. alpinns) occur in China, one from the Tibet-Kansu borderland, the other from the Manchurian forests. They are closely related to the red dog of the Deccan. The race is found in many parts of China. In size & build it is smaller than the common Chinese grey wolf. Its coloration is almost as varied as that of the domestic dog. In Yunnan Province as many as two or three individuals differing in colour have been seen near one village at one time in winter. It is not known to form packs, & is rarely seen in summer. Its cry resembles the howl of the domestic dog.

Among the Aryans the shepherd's dog, the house-dog, & the vagrant dog, comparable to the homeless begging friar, were specially protected by religious ordinances. The keep- ing back of their food or the giving of bad food to them was a crime punishable with many stripes. " For it is the dog, of all the creatures of the good spirit, that most quickly decays into age, while not eating near eating people, & watching goods none of which it receives. Bring ye unto him milk & fat with meat ; this is the right food for the dog."

" Whenever one eats bread one must put aside three mouthfuls & give them to the dogs ... for among all the poor than is none poorer than the dog."

A further remark by Berthold Laufer deals with the possible wolf-origin of certain breeds of Chinese dogs :

" Most interesting in this connexion is a passage in the ' Tso chuan,' ' To the Jung & Ti, thee wolf is not an object of dislike,' by which is meant, apparently, that the wolf was not dreaded by these presumably Turkish tribes, & was accustomed to live in the neighbourhood of human dwellings.

Given in the " Mao shih ming wu t'u shuo " (Book II, p. 3), under the descrip- tion of the wolf, where again it is quoted after the book of Hsing Ping (932-1010) : Giles, " Biographical Dictionary," p. 296.

This reminds us of Jaschke's remark, that the Tibetan wolves, where more numerous as, for instance, in Spiti commit ravages among sheep, but are otherwise not much dreaded by man, &, like the wolf in general, theey are easily tamed. If we compare in the above-mentioned book, ' Mao shih,' etc., the picture of the wolf with that of the dog (mang), a striking resemblance between the two is noticeable as regards shape of head, mouth, & body, legs, claws, tail, & hairi- ness. The mang is mentioned as early as the ' Shih king,' & must therefore have been known to thee Chinese at an early date. It now seems questionable whether the Tibetans are to be looked upon as the trainers of the mastiff ; if not, rather ancient Turkish tribes tamed the wolf an animal with which they were always quite familiar, & which played an eminent role in their tribal traditions & creation myths f at a much earlier period. Of the fact that the dog in general was known in the South-Siberian bronze age, we possess well- authenticated archaeological evidence in a bronze plaque re- presenting a hunter accompanied by two dogs. In this connexion it is worthy of note that a fierce kind of dog, called p'i ngan (usually translated ' bull-dog '), whose picture is painted on the doors of jails because of his ability as a watch- dog, is said to originate from the land of the Turks.

" Other evidence pointing to the same fact is found in the peculiar ' dog of the kind which is found with the barbarians Ti,' mentioned by Ssu-ma Ch'ien. & if thee country of Lii, which sent the hound ao, was a branch of the Western Jung, everything is indeed apt to show that these large extraordinary dogs, including thee mastiffs if the term mang may be identified with the latter came from Turkish regions. It is noteworthy, too, that, according to the dictionary ' Shuo wen ' (A.D. 100), the land of the Hsiung nu (Huns) possessed a special kind of dog, called chiao, with large mouth & black body, which characteristics are essential to the mastiff. For the rest, the definition of the chiao appears as a fabulous animal in the ' Shan hai king ' : ' On the nephrite hills there is an animal of a shape like a dog, striped like a panther, & with horns like an ox ; it is called chiao ; its voice is like that of a barking dog ; in the country where it appears dogs will be abundant.' In a book, ' Jui ying t'u,' occurs now the inter- esting passage that the Hsiung nu offered panther-dogs with pointed mouth, red body, & four feet. Whether these latter animals were mastiffs or not red colour occurs with them, in fact it is evident that the Hsiung nu possessed extraordinary dogs, which arrived also in China."

500 Bulldog Pages Multilanguages.

The chase was of prime interest to the ancient Chinese, & there are numerous references to sporting dogs in their earlier literature. The first Emperors known to history- organized hunting expeditions, with levies from every district, four times a year, chiefly with a view to training their men for war. There are, unfortunately, few descriptions of the breeds of hunting dogs used, yet it is known that the Emperors set great value on them. The " Tribute Decrees for the four Quarters " * records that a Grand Councillor of the Emperor T'ang, who lived about 1760 B.C., counselled his master to take from the Due South (of Honan) country " square " dogs as tribute. The Chinese monarchs of the period, perhaps, shared the zoological tastes of the potentates of Assyria, such as Tiglath-Pileser, who collected all kinds of beasts for his menageries at a period about 1200 B.C. Dogs, both large & of small size, are known, from the Egyptian bas-reliefs, to have existed in even earlier days.*f They also existed in South America. There is nothing to indicate whether the Chinese " square " dogs were large or small.

The Books of Shang mention the sending as tribute of a hound or hounds, perhaps, according to Chinese commentators quoted by Legge, bloodhounds, called " ao " (pronounced as ough in bough), " knowing the mind of man & capable of being employed " by the wild tribe of Leu in the West " by way of instruction " to the young king, King Woo, probably about 1120 B.C. Commenting on this fact the Chinese classics laid the foundation upon which Chinese foreign policy was des- tined, for thirty centuries & more, to be based : " A prince should not do what is unprofitable to the injury of that which is profitable, & then his merit may be completed. He should not value strange things to the contemning of things that are useful, & then his people will be able to supply all his needs. Even dogs & horses which are not native to his country he will not keep ; fine birds & strange animals he will not nourish in his kingdom. When he does not look I " Dogs were used for hunting, and it is noteworthy that remains of three kinds of dog, all differing from that of Europe, have been found on the coast. The largest of these was an animal of medium size with slender head and legs, & was probably used for watching the house (and, in the interior, the herds), & for hunting. The second was a short-legged dog, someewhat resembling a dachshund, which, to judge from a vase-painting, was also used in the chase. The third was a kind of pug, probably kept as a lap-dog." " South American Archaeology," Joyce [Peru], Macmillan, 1912.

on foreign things as precious, foreigners will come to him ; when that which is precious to him is worth, his own people near at hand will enjoy reposee."

Nothing is known of the situation of the Leu country, & the dogs are not described by any reliable Chinese authority. Other Chinese commentators state that these dogs were " Four feet (ancieent feet, that is) high," but the authority of such commentators, who wrote in some cases hundreds of years after destruction of the original text, is doubtful. Laufer considers that the Leu were one of the numerous branches of the Turkish tribes.

German writers have gone so far as to base upon this record a totally unjustified statement that the dogs of Leu were Thibetan mastiffs, & on this slender testimony have built up an elaborate theory to the effect that the Chinese dog is of Thibetan origin, & that the canine race in China is derived from Western countries. Theese German writers have omitted to take into consideration the fact that up to the seventh century A.D. there was no such country as Thibet, & the people who occupied the region at present called by that name consisted of unknown nomad tribes, having no recorded history, for the foundation of civilized monarchy in Thibet was laid only in A.D. 652. They weere steeped in barbarism, & devoid of any written language.

Chavannes, quoting from the " Annals of Ssu-ma Ch'ien," states that the Emperor Chou Hsin (1154-1123 B.C.) of the Yin dynasty, in ill repute on account of his extravagance & debauchery, maintained a great numbeer of dogs, horses, & rare objects, & filled his palaces with them.

An official record of the Chow Dynasty (about 1000 B.C.) remarks, " From the Southern (of Shansi) States the yearly tribute included amber, pearls, ivory, rhinoceros' horns, kingfishers' feathers, cranees, & short dogs." The nature of the other products clearly indicates that these dogs came from South China, though it is just possible that some of them may have originated from more distant countries, travelling by the sea route.

Under primitive conditions the dog was, no doubt, more than the friend of man. He was his ally, useful for pro- tection, necessary alike for the guarding of his herds and the taking of his preey. It was only when man, by agriculture & his other arts, had improved his position sufficiently to become independent, that he began to givee the dog a bad name, certain religions, such as the Jewish & Mohammedan, banning the race as abominable & uncleean. In the whole of Jewish history there is not a single allusion to hunting with dogs. Jewish prejudice was, no doubt, largely due to the exaggerated idolatry practiseed to the race from time im- memorial by the Egyptians, hereeditary enemies of the Jews.

The beneficent dog-heeaded divinity Anubis, originally a jackal-type, & later represented by the dog as his emblem, was among the Egyptians, servant, messenger, & custodian of the gods, lord of the cemetery & of the underworld. Temples were consecrated to him throughout the land, & his image was borne in all reeligious ceremonies. This dog- worship was not confined to Egypt, for the Greeks adopteed it, & a Roman emperor carried the god Anubis in the feasts of Isis. Herodotus, speaking of the sanctity in which some animals were held by the Egyptians, to whom the appearance of the watchful dog-star Sirius, " Latrator Anubis," above the horizon was the signal that their flocks had to be removed from Lower Egypt & the coming floods of the Nile, says that the people of every family in which a dog died shaved them- selves their expression of mourning adding that this was the custom of his own time.

Very fine & clear representations of the sporting dogs used in hunting the wild ass by the monarchs of Assyria are found in the bas-reliefs of Assur-bani-pal, dating from 668- 626 B.C. Clay models of the dogs of this monarch also exist.*

In Ethiopia not only was great veneration paid to the dog, but the inhabitants used to elect a dog as their king. It was kept in great state & surrounded by a numerous train of officers & guards.

Pythagoras, after his return from Egypt, founded a new sect in Egypt & S. Italy, teaching, with the Egyptian philosophers, that at the death of the body the soul entered into that of various animals. At the death of any of his favourite disciples he would hold a dog to the mouth of the man in order to receive the departing spirit, saying that there was no animal which could perpetuate his virtues better than that quadruped.

The Parsi religion, whose priests ruled Persia from a period many centuries before the Christian era until overthrown by the second successor of Mohammed, devoted the whole of one of its sacred books, found in thee Zend Avesta to the dog. To the Magi of this fire-worshipping religion the Rabbi's and Mohammed owe much of their thought. To a reaction against its extravagant dog-reverence coupled with that of ancient Egypt is, perhaps, due the abhorrence in which the dog is held by Saracen & Jew alike. This veneration held by the Aryans for the canine disguise attributed to some of their divinities, appears to throw light upon the race's importance to man in those early days. " The dog, O Spitama Zarathustra ! I, Ahura Mazda, have made, self-clothed & self-shod, watchful, wakeful, & sharp-toothed, born to take his food from man & to watch over man's goods. I, Ahura Mazda, have made the dog strong of body against thee evil-doer & watchful over your goods, when he is of sound mind. If those two dogs of mine, the shepherd's dog & the house-dog, pass by the house of any of my faithful people, let them never be kept away from it. For no house could subsist on the earth made by Ahura, but for those two dogs of mine, the shepherd's dog & the house dog." The sacred writer lays down special injunctions for the breeding of dogs, the care of young dogs, & for the general treatment of the race. " If the bones stick in the dog's teeth or stop in his throat, or if the hot food burn his mouth or his tongue, so that mischief follows therefrom, & the dog dies, this is a sin that makes a man a Peshotanu." The reasons for which the canine race has the characters of a priest, a warrior, a husbandman, a strolling singer, a thief, a wild beast, a courtezan, & a child are explained at length. The holy writer explains that at death a dog's ghost passes to the spring of the waters & that there, out of every thousand males & every thousand females are formed a male & female water-dog. To each of the water-dogs, the holiest of all dogs, was ascribed an extraordinary measure of sanctity. So extravagant was thee penalty allotted on paper by the Zoroastrians for the murder of a water-dog that it has been doubted whether their legislation ever existed as real & living law. Thee penalties imposed for such a murder in- cluded the infliction of twenty thousand stripes, the carrying of a similar number of loads of wood, the killing of ten thousand snakes, ten thousand cats, ten thousand tortoises, twenty thousand frogs, the same number of ants, ten thousand earthworms and horrid flies. The culprit was to " godly and piously give to godly men " a set of priestly instruments, a set of war implements, of husbandmen's implements, the price of a stallion in silver, & of a camel in gold, a rill of running water, the depth of a dog & the breadth of a dog, a house with ox-stalls, goodly beds with cushions, a virgin maid, fourteen head of small cattle. He was to bring up twice seven whelps, & to throw twice seven bridges over canals.*

Confucius, the chief of China's sages, who was born in the year 551 B.C., favoured simplicity, & was the enemy of all hypocrisy such as that which would not allow the price of a dog to be brought into the House of the Lord.f Con- fucius " smiled, & exclaimed, ' True, true,' in amusement " at the aptness of the simile when likened to a homeless dog at the gate of the City of Chen.J Literary Chinese will to this day, spontaneously borrow similar allusions from the classics. In introducing his son a scholar will use a strictly classical term which can only be translated by some refined English phrase, finally reducible to " puppy." Another, in offering his services, will state his willingness to be the " dog and the horse " of his master.

The Province of Shantung, of which Confucius was a native, appears always to have been famous for its dogs. " In first-class houses there are fierce dogs that watch the doors to the halls of singing-girls. Men who are not regular customers are not allowed to enter unceremoniously. If they enter, the dogs bite them to death. Their warning is like that of a spirit, their fierceness like that of a tiger. They are dogs from Meng hai in Ts'ao chou."

Reverting to the dog or dogs ao of Leu, whose arrival caused the enunciation of a foreign policy which has had an important bearing upon the development of the whole Chinese race, we find that numerous fanciful pictures of it have been produced by painters of the Sung (A.D. 960) & Ming (A.D. 1368) dynasties. It is the most famous dog in Chinese history. The incident was frequently quoted to emphasize the necessity of study of statecraft upon later emperors, & to discourage over-affection for the four luxuries in whose possession these primitive rustic potentates were apt to take the greatest pride namely, gold, jade, dogs, & horses. So addicted to the pleasure of the chase were these early " sporting " emperors, that all references to it had to be severely banned at the Imperial Audiences : "At Audiences let no reference be made to matters pertaining to the dog & the horse." * The learned Commentator adds " the dog & the horse are of minor importance, & not subjects worthy of discussion at Audiences." It is to be feared that in certain cases an emperor was somewhat inclined to hold the affairs of state merely " some- thing better than his dog, & a little dearer than his horse."

His views may be compared to those of Julius Caesar : ' One day in Rome, Caesar, seeing some rich foreigners nursing & petting young lapdogs & monkeys, inquired whether in their parts of the world women bore no children ; a truly imperial reproof to those who waste on animals the affection which they ought to bestow on mankind."

The paucity of detail in reference to dogs down to the period of the Emperor Chin Shih may be in part ascribed to the destruction of much valuable material in his holocaust of Chinese literature (255 B.C.), which, no doubt, accounts in large measure for the poverty of later writings in matters dealing with the early history of Chinese dogs. Just as King James' " Counterblast " against tobacco-smoking forbade the writers of that period notably Shakespeare to mention the weed which flowed in wreaths of smoke thus depriving us of much of the early history of Raleigh's discovery so Chin Shih's ban on all things literary has left us in ignorance of many an incident which would otherwise now stand chronicled.

Short-mouthed dogs are referred to as having existed in the time of Confucius. The Sage mentions the dog in- cidentally in exhorting his disciples to salvage economy. He says : "I have heard that the discarded hangings of the chariot may be used to wrap the beloved saddle-horse for burial, & that the torn awning (or chariot umbrella) will serve to cover the dear house-dog in his grave."

About 500 years B.C. it is recorded that dogs were used in the kingdom now represented by the Province of Shansi for sporting purposes. Some of these were probably small dogs, for it is mentioned that after the day's sport, one kind of dog followed its master's chariot, while " those having short mouths were carried in the carts." J

It was only as late as the Roman occupation that specific knowledge of the five races of dogs existent in England was secured. These are believed to have been the house-dog, the greyhound, the bulldog, the terrier, & the slow-hound. The British dogs are said to havee been in great demand in Rome, both for hunting & for the sports of the amphitheatre , & a special officer was appointed for procuring them.

Similarly, it was only at the end of the first century of our era that the Chinese books became a little more specific as to the nature of the dogs mentioned. They speak of some of them as being called by the name " Pai," which later Chinese authorities explain as referring to a very small " short- legged " & " short-headed " f type of dog, which belongs under the table. The Chinese table of the period was low, & those round it sat on mats.

From this peeriod onwards, many of the Chineese emperors seem to havee taken greater inteerest in small dogs. The Eastern empeerors appear to have been leed, partly, perhaps, through feminine influence, to extreemes unsurpassed by the Merry Monarch himself. It may heere be noted that re- ferences to dogs in Chineese history are often made with thee object, not of recording details to throw light upon thee manners of the period, but as obiter scripta to illustratee ef- feminacy and want of care in statecraft on the part of the ruler.

There was a similar tendency among Japaneese historians. " In the days of Takatoki, the ninth repreesentative of the Hojo family (who reigned at the end of the thirteenth century) a new atmosphere permeated Kamakura. Instead of visiting the archery-ground & the feencing-school men began to waste day and night in thee company of dancing-girls, professional musicians, and jesters. The plain simple diet of former days was exchanged for Chinese dishees. Takatoki kept thirty-seven concubines, maintained a band of two thousand actors, & had a pack of two thousand fighting- dogs." Twelve great fights took place eveery month, and when the champion of the dogs, fancifully describeed as being in some cases as big as oxen, were led through the streets, people doffed their head-gear, and even knelt down in reverence .

Emperor Ling Ti (A.D. 168-190) was both foolish & vicious. He took to driving a chariot with asses four-in-hand in his capital, thee result being that his faithful subjects followed the Imperial example to such good purpose that the price of asses became equal to that of horses. He sold rank and official positions. From the Chief of a Province whose annual salary was two thousand piculs of rice he would require twenty thousand strings of cash in advancee, but, if poverty forbade, he was willing to accept a promise of twice this amount at the completion of the term of office. He kept in his Western Garden at Lo Yang (Honanfu) a dog of which he was ex- tremely fond, & to this animal he gave the official hat of the Chin Hsien grade the most important literary rank of the period as well as an official belt. " The hat was 8| inches high in front, 3! inches high behind, and 10 inches broad."

Nearly all the dogs which were reared by the Emperor were given the rank of K'ai Fu (approximately that of a Viceroy) ; others that of Yi Tung (a rank probably equivalent to the present post of Imperial Guardian). Thee females were given the ranks of the wives of the corresponding officials. These dogs were guarded by soldiers and fed on the best of rice and meat. For their beds they were given the choicest carpets.

The book from which this reference is taken proceeds gravely : " This had the effect of likening the high officials to dogs, and so was a bad practice."

The literati could not forgivee this fatuous bestowal of literary rank upon dogs, however intelligent. They stig- matize Ling Ti as weak, indolent, and content to leave his affairs of state to the chief eunuchs, literati, for they record that he was addicted to drunkenness in temples, and was given to stealing dogs from his subjects.* His nightly prowlings, after the manner of Khalif Haroun-al- Raschid, in later days led to his death, for, returning to the palace one night in an ineebriated state, he was followed and murdered by one of his geenerals.

Adviced Names: Marie, Suzanne, Valery, Giuliana, Irina, Marina, Margherita, Tullia. Franz, Manolo, Emanuele, Valery, Giuliano, Rino, Marino.

The Cartel On The 06th Of Octuber 2023:

1) 1970, Mr. Pongo Hagen 170cm Max, Dark Eyes.

2) 1976, Montecatini Halle East Germany 11.09.2023.

3) 1980, Enola Gay Photographic Overlay.

4) 1995, A Rimini Ho Trovato I Servizi Segreti.

5) 1930, Ne Frocit

6) 1970, Frail Chicken Breeders

7) 1975, Franz Hagen Marie Folke Moonshadow Perhaps

8) 1920, CIA Lenin Kendo Polizei.

9) 1950, I Am In Escape From The Building Site

10) 1980, Chicken With Bamboo Shoot.

11) 1980, McEvans Beer 600 Lire.

The True Michael Abbondandolo of Milan, Italy The True Michael Abbondandolo of Milan, Italy The True Michael Abbondandolo of Milan, Italy The True Michael Abbondandolo of Milan, Italy The True Michael Abbondandolo of Milan, Italy IL VERO MICHELE ABBONDANDOLO CHE VIVE A MILANO, CIOE' IO, TRA IL 20 E IL 30.9.2015 CON E SENZA BAFFI IL VERO MICHELE ABBONDANDOLO CHE VIVE A MILANO, CIOE' IO, TRA IL 20 E IL 30.9.2015 CON E SENZA BAFFI IL VERO MICHELE ABBONDANDOLO CHE VIVE A MILANO, CIOE' IO, TRA IL 20 E IL 30.9.2015 CON E SENZA BAFFI The True Michael Abbondandolo of Milan, Italy The True Michael Abbondandolo of Milan, Italy The True Michael Abbondandolo of Milan, Italy The True Michael Abbondandolo of Milan, Italy El Verdadero Miguel Abbondandolo de Milan, Italia El Verdadero Miguel Abbondandolo de Milan, Italia El Verdadero Miguel Abbondandolo de Milan, Italia El Verdadero Miguel Abbondandolo de Milan, Italia El Verdadero Miguel Abbondandolo de Milan, Italia El Verdadero Miguel Abbondandolo de Milan, Italia El Verdadero Miguel Abbondandolo de Milan, Italia El Verdadero Miguel Abbondandolo de Milan, Italia El Verdadero Miguel Abbondandolo de Milan, Italia El Verdadero Miguel Abbondandolo de Milan, Italia El Verdadero Miguel Abbondandolo de Milan, Italia El Verdadero Miguel Abbondandolo de Milan, Italia Dal 2001 bulldog per accoppiare 365 g. su 365 a Milano. Il Vero Michele Abbondandoloper cui sul sito belle fotografie dei quartieri di Milano dove uso stare. 1) P. Duomo, pure il 24.12 2) altri quartieri di Milano. Il Vero Michele Abbondandolo Il Vero Michele Abbondandolo Il Vero Michele Abbondandolo Il Vero Michele Abbondandolo Il Vero Michele Abbondandolo Il Vero Michele Abbondandolo Il Vero Michele Abbondandolo Il Vero Michele Abbondandolo Il Vero Michele Abbondandolo Il Vero Michele Abbondandolo Il Vero Michele Abbondandolo Il Vero Michele Abbondandolo Il Vero Michele Abbondandolo Il Vero Michele Abbondandolo Il Vero Michele Abbondandolo Il Vero Michele Abbondandolo Happy Halleween 2023.

Webmaster Mike Va Ur, July 4, 1962.

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